Poor Oral Hygiene And Its Effects On Health

Poor Oral Hygiene means and its effects on your Health (A complete Guide)

Dental and Oral Health is essential for your overall Health and well-being. Poor oral hygiene can lead to bad breath, dental cavities, and gum disease linked to heart diseasecancer, Bone loss, Inflammation of blood vessels, Hardened arteries, High blood pressure, Blood clots, Fertility problems, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes.

Maintaining healthy teeth and gums is a lifelong process. The earlier you master proper oral hygiene habits — such as brushing, flossing, and restricting sugar intake — the easier it’ll be to avoid costly dental procedures and long-term health issues.

Facts about dental and oral Health

According to the world health organization

  • More than 40% of adults reported having felt pain in their mouth last year,
  • 80% of people aged 34 will have at least one cavity.
  • The united states nation spends more than $124 billion on costs related to dental care products each year. 
  • Over 34 million school hours and more than $45 billion in productivity are lost yearly due to dental emergencies and unplanned care.
  • between 15 and 20 percent of adults ages 35 to 44 have severe gum disease
  • about 30 percent of people around the world ages 65 to 74 don’t have any single natural tooth left
  • in most countries, out of every 100,000 people, there are between 1 and 10 cases of oral cancer
  • Poor oral hygiene has increased in wealthy countries due to increased sugar intake and lavish lifestyles.

Symptoms of dental and oral conditions:

Visiting the dentist twice a year usually allows them to catch a problem before a patient notices any symptoms. It would help if you didn’t wait until you have symptoms to visit your dentist.

If the patient experiences any of the following warning signs of dental health issues, he should make an appointment to see your dentist as soon as possible:

  • tender areas in the mouth called sores or ulcers that won’t heal after a week or two
  • bleeding or swollen gums after brushing or flossing teeth
  • persistent bad breath
  • unexpected sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures or beverages
  • toothache or pain in the mouth
  • loose teeth or receding gums
  • pain on chewing or biting
  • swelling of the face and cheek
  • the clicking of the jaw or temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome
  • cracked or broken tooth
  • frequent dry mouth 

What are the causes of poor oral hygiene 

The oral cavity harbors all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Most of them reside in the oral cavity, called the normal flora of the mouth. They’re generally harmless in small quantities.

But a diet high in sugar creates an environment in which harmful bacteria start flourishing. This acid dissolves tooth enamel and causes dental cavities.

Bacteria near the gumline touching the tooth thrive in a sticky matrix called plaque. Plaque accumulates, migrates, and hardens down the tooth’s length if it isn’t removed regularly by brushing and flossing. bacteria in the plaque can inflame gums and cause the condition known as gingivitis

Increased Inflammation causes gums to pull away from the teeth. This process creates pockets in which pus may eventually collect. This more advanced stage of gum disease is called periodontitis.

Many factors contribute to gingivitis and periodontitis, including:

  • consistent smoking
  • poor brushing techniques and habits
  • frequent snacks, sugary foods, and drinks
  • diabetes
  • the use of medications that reduces the amount of saliva in the oral cavity
  • family history, or genetics
  • certain infections, such as HIV or AIDS
  • hormonal changes in women
  • acid reflux, or heartburn
  • frequent vomiting intentionally or unintentionally leading to erosion in the mouth from gastric acid

Diagnosis of oral and dental diseases :

The dentist can diagnose Most dental and oral problems during a routine dental exam. A dental exam comprises an inspection of teeth, mouth, throat, tongue, cheeks, jaw, and neck.

A dental technician at the dentist’s office will take dental X-rays of the mouth, ensuring an image of each of the teeth.

Pregnant women should inform the dentist of their pregnancy. Women who are pregnant shouldn’t have X-rays as they are harmful to the baby.


A tool called a probe is used to measure gum pockets. This small ruler can tell the dentist whether or not the patient has gum disease or receding gums. In a healthy mouth, the depth of the pockets between the teeth is usually between 1 and 3 millimeters (mm). Any measurement higher than that may mean gum disease.

If the dentist finds any abnormal lumps, lesions, or growths in the patient’s mouth, he may perform a gum biopsy. A small piece of tissue is removed from the growth or lesion during a biopsy. The sample is then sent to a laboratory for examination under a microscope to check for any cancerous cells.

If oral cancer is suspected, the dentist may also order imaging tests to see if cancer has spread. Tests include the following:

  • X-ray or radiograph
  • MRI scan
  • CT scan
  • endoscopy

Types of dental and oral conditions in Poor Oral Hygiene 

Most oral health conditions are preventable to a large extent and can be treated in their early stages and with proper oral hygiene. One is likely to experience at least one dental problem during one’s lifetime.

Dental caries (tooth decay)

Dental caries, also called cavities or tooth decay, results when plaque forms on the surface of a tooth and converts the free sugars (all sugars added to foods by the manufacturer, cook, or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, and fruit juices) contained in foods and drinks into acids that destroy the tooth permanently resulting in holes over time.

A continued high intake of free sugars, inadequate exposure to fluoride, and a lack of removal of plaque by tooth brushing can lead to caries, pain, and sometimes tooth loss and infection.

Gum disease (gingivitis)

Gum disease, also called gingivitis, is inflammation of the gums. It’s usually the result of plaque building up on your teeth due to poor brushing and flossing habits. Gingivitis can make your gums swell and bleed when you brush or floss. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis, a more serious infection.


Periodontal disease affects the tissues that both surround and support the tooth. It is a severe form of gingivitis in which the gum can come away from the tooth and supporting bone, causing teeth to become loose and sometimes fall out. It can also cause an inflammatory response throughout the body.

Severe periodontal diseases affect around 14% of the global adult population, representing more than one billion cases worldwide. The main causes of periodontal disease are poor oral hygiene and tobacco use.

Broken teeth or Oro-dental trauma

A tooth can crack or break from an injury to the mouth, chewing hard foods, or grinding the teeth at night (bruxism). A cracked tooth becomes very painful. The patient should visit The dentist immediately if one has developed a cracked or broken tooth.

Oro-dental trauma results from teeth, mouth, and oral cavity injury. Around 20% of people suffer from trauma to teeth at some point. Oro-dental trauma can be caused by oral factors such as lack of teeth alignment and environmental factors (such as unsafe playgrounds, risk-taking behavior, road accidents, and violence). Treatment can be costly and lengthy and sometimes lead to tooth loss, resulting in complications for facial and psychological development and quality of life.

Sensitive teeth

Sensitive teeth are painful and create discomfort after having cold or hot foods or beverages.

Tooth sensitivity is also referred to as “dentin hypersensitivity.” It always occurs after exposure to the tooth root. Reasons for root exposure can be 

  • gum disease (gingivitis)
  • periodontitis
  • dental cavity
  • receding gums
  • a cracked tooth
  • worn-down fillings or crowns
  • naturally thin enamel

Oral cancer

Oral cancers include cancer of the following:

  • gums
  • tongue
  • lips
  • cheek
  • the floor of the mouth
  • hard and soft palate

A dentist is usually the first person to identify oral cancer. Tobacco use, such as smoking and chewing tobacco, is the biggest risk factor for oral cancer.

According to the Oral Cancer Foundation (OCF), nearly 50,000 Americans will be diagnosed with oral cancer this year.

The global incidence of lip and oral cavity cancers is estimated at 4 cases per 100 000 people. However, there is wide variation across the globe, from 0 to around 22 cases per 100 000 people. Oral cancer is more common in men and older people and varies strongly by socio-economic condition. In general, the earlier that oral cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis.

Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid (seed of the fruit of areca palm) are among the leading causes of oral cancer. In North America and Europe, human papillomavirus infections are responsible for a growing percentage of oral cancers among the younger generation.

Cleft lip and palate

Orofacial clefts, the most common craniofacial congenital disabilities, have a global prevalence of 1 in 1000-1500 births, with wide variation in different studies and populations. Genetic predisposition is a major cause. However, poor maternal nutritiontobacco consumption, alcohol, and obesity during pregnancy also play a role. In low-income environments, there is a high risk of the early death of a baby. Complete rehabilitation is possible if lip and palate clefts are properly treated by surgery or special feeding prosthesis at an early stage.

Effect Of Poor Oral Hygiene On General Health

Like other body areas, the mouth teems with normal flora — But as the mouth is the entry point to digestive and respiratory tracts, some of these bacteria can cause disease.

Normally the body’s natural defenses and good oral health care, such as daily brushing and flossing, keep bacteria under control. However, without proper oral hygiene, bacteria can reach levels that might lead to oral infections, such as tooth decay and gum disease.

Also, certain medications — such as decongestants, antihistamines, painkillers, diuretics, and antidepressants — can reduce saliva flow.

Saliva washes away food and neutralizes acids produced by bacteria in the mouth, protecting from microbes that multiply and lead to disease.

Studies suggest that oral bacteria and the inflammation associated with a severe form of gum disease (periodontitis) might play a role in some diseases. And certain diseases, such as diabetes and HIV/AIDS, can lower the body’s resistance to infection, making oral health problems more severe.

oral Health might contribute to various diseases and conditions, including:

Endocarditis. This infection of the inner lining of your heart chambers or valves (endocardium) typically occurs when bacteria or other germs from another part of your body, such as the mouth, spread through the bloodstream and attach to certain areas of the heart.

Cardiovascular disease. Although the connection is not fully understood, some researchers suggest that heart disease, clogged arteries, and stroke might be linked to the inflammation and infections that oral bacteria can cause.

Pregnancy and birth complications. Periodontitis has been linked to premature birth and low birth weight.

Pneumonia. Certain bacteria in your mouth can be pulled into your lungs, causing pneumonia and other respiratory diseases.

Certain conditions also might affect your oral Health, including:

Diabetes. Reduces the body’s resistance to infection and puts the gums at risk. Gum disease appears to be more frequent and severe among people with diabetes.

Research shows that people with gum disease have a harder time controlling their blood sugar levels. Regular periodontal care can improve diabetes control.

HIV/AIDS. Oral problems, such as painful mucosal lesions, are common in people with HIV/AIDS.

Osteoporosis. This bone-weakening disease is linked with periodontal bone loss and tooth loss. Certain drugs used to treat osteoporosis carry a small risk of damage to the bones of the jaw.

Alzheimer’s disease. Worsening oral Health is seen as Alzheimer’s disease progresses.

Other conditions that might be linked to oral Health include eating disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, certain cancers, and an immune system disorder that causes dry mouth (Sjogren’s syndrome).